Water is an invaluable resource that covers up most of our planet. But unfortunately, only 1 percent of the water present on earth is fresh and drinkable. All the other water is either saline or it is infected.
As the population hikes, people have started looking for safer treatment systems that can help them reuse water again or at least prevent very toxic water from polluting freshwater bodies.
But this idea might sound gross to many people. How can water be recycled when it has all the toxic and waste material in it? Well, there are ways in which pure water can be obtained by following a few simple steps. These steps make up many of the safer treatment systems for water.
Straining and filtration:
Most of the time dirty water is not just water; it also has some big pieces of waste that come in along with the infectious agents. Before the water could be treated it had to be strained and filtered.
Most of the safer treatment systems use a big grid to remove big sized objects and then filtration is done to remove large sized particles like sand etc.
Sometimes filtration can take a lot of time. Getting such a fine level of filtration can be very hard. That is why another very easy technique is used to remove sand and soil-like particles.
The water is made to stand in huge tanks where all the heavy particles sediment after a few hours. The water is removed from the top to be processed further.
Aeration is a technique by which we increase the contact of water with air. It is done mechanically and some machine or specialized equipment is needed for aeration of water. But how is aeration helpful in building some safer treatment systems?
Aeration increases the oxygen content of water that allowsremoving volatile compounds that cause the odor in water. Apart from that, there are certain compounds of magnesium and calcium which react with oxygen to form oxides. These oxides can be easily removed through precipitation. This helps in making the water soft and mineral-free.
Flocculation and coagulation:
Flocculation and coagulation are the techniques used to separate solid particles in the water. This treatment method is a chemical way of removing solid particles as opposed to the mechanical aeration process.
To get started with these two processes knowing the composition of the water to be treated is the key. Then certain chemicals are added that will coagulate the solid particles by making them attract each other. This is how the process of coagulation works which is a very popular technique to remove salt-like particles from water.
Disinfection is done in order to kill the harmful microorganisms from the water. This is one thing that should be a priority because these harmful bacteria and viruses are almost invisible. They can cause a lot of diseases and this is why disinfection is a compulsory step of all types of safer treatment systems.
Some of the common disinfection procedures include boiling and chemical disinfection.
1. Chemical disinfection:
Chemical disinfection includes the addition of certain chemicals that can kill harmful microorganisms.
One of the most common chemicals used for this purpose is chlorine. But unfortunately, chlorine leaves some kind of smell in the water which makes it annoying for some people to use it. But until this day chlorine disinfection is quite common in many water treatment systems.
2. Disinfection by boiling:
This is an ancient and pioneer method of disinfection that still works very well. Boiling water at higher temperatures can kill almost all living things that reside in the water.
At times the pressure of the boiling water system is increased so that boiling temperature rises and no life forms are left in the water. This gives ultimate purity to water. But this method takes a lot of energy and is not economically feasible in many cases.
This is the safest way of getting pure water. The water is boiled and the vapors are collected and condensed to form pure water. This technique gives you the highest quality water and this is why it is very popular.
Many households use this technique to get pure water. But carrying it out on a large scale is very difficult and energy-consuming.
In conclusion, all these techniques and many others are used in many safer treatment systems for water. They can be combined together to get the best results. Using the right kind of techniques even the sewage water can be turned back into drinking water. This is the power of recycling.